I qualified as a Primary teacher over 20 years ago, with a PGCE from the University of Leeds. Before that I studied English and Education and Community Studies at the College of Ripon and York St John, a college of University of Leeds- now a university in its own right. I studied social research methods at London Metropolitan University, which mainly taught me that social research isn’t really my cup of tea, then an MA in Victorian Studies at Birkbeck, University of London. The MA really excited my interest in an interdisciplinary approach to the study of literature, which has informed my approach to my PhD.

My thesis is that working class children in children’s fantasy have become disempowered, and in some texts have almost become the Red Shirts, as protagonists become more privileged and protected. I intend to investigate whether working class children’s enjoyment of reading is affected by the depiction of working class children in the books that they read. My own reading enjoyment was affected at secondary school by not reading a book in English lessons with a girl in it for 3 years.

I live in Brighton with my wonderful partner (and soon to be husband Steve) and am a step-mum to my gorgeous little boy. The commute to East London is more than compensated for by living 15 mins from the beach.


My Nine Worlds schedule

This is me! If you’re coming to Nine Worlds, say hi.


I’m lucky enough to be on 5 panel items at Nine Worlds 10th-12th August. A full list is here

On Friday:

1:30- Rodents in children’s fantasy fiction. This is a panel discussion. From Redwall to Ratatouille, from Maurice and his Educated Rodents to The Tale of Despereaux, fantasy for children has a history of mice, rats, rabbits and other rodents going adventuring, escaping peril and saving the day. The panel will explore why rodents, features that make these stories work (and when they don’t) and why they are still so popular.

6:45- Policy and Administration: celebrating the back room in genre. This is a panel discussion. First, follow the correct procurement procedure for your spaceship: Administration and governance in other worlds.
Does the Unseen University have research output targets?
Does the wizarding world have a pre-Hogwarts curriculum?
What kind of risk assessment should be carried out before transporting dragon eggs in a conflict situation?
How can chain of custody and evidentiary laws be followed when policing the undead?
What’s the Net Present Value of Barrayar’s space programme?
If you have asked yourself these kinds of questions, then this panel is for you! Come and listen to us talk about finance, education, justice and armed forces administration in fantasy worlds.

On Saturday:

1.30- Talk. Dangerously attractive witches in children’s fantasy fiction. This is an expanded version of a talk I’ll be giving at IBBY Congress in Athens. I will be discussing the way that foreign witches are characterised in His Dark Materials and Harry Potter as sexy, dangerous and predatory. I really enjoyed writing this paper because I learned a lot about the folklore Veela and Lapland witches were based on. There will of course also be jokes about rigid and flexible wands.

On Sunday:

11:45- panel: Social class in fandom. A panel acknowledging and addressing the specific barriers to participation in fandom due to social class and financial situations, such as assumptions about the social class of fans, the gatekeeping of fandom by some fans to “prove” fandom and how finances may preclude that (e.g. the cost of going to see bands/ attend conventions/ own material goods such as vinyl, books, cinema going vs streaming). My husband is on the panel too!

1:30- panel. What would a female friendly future look like? A panel consisting of female scifi bloggers and authors, in which we discuss what a female friendly future could look like, and books that we think portray a feminist future.

Phew! A busy weekend, but I can’t wait!





Review: Emily Knight I am… awakened

Please note: I was sent this book by the author, A. Bello, in return for an honest review.

emily knight I am awakened

A year after the events of the first book, Emily Knight I am, relucant warrior in training Emily Knight returns to her training school, Osaki. The daughter of famous warrior Thomas Knight and sister of missing Lox, Emily has a lot to deal with: the return of the evil Neci, terrifying dreams and intense adolescent feelings affecting friendships and relationships with her class mates. Can Emily learn to control her emotions enough to enable her  to control her powers and help save her school and friends?

It’s fantastic to see the story of Emily expanded, and to learn more about the world of the warriors. The beginning chapter is the back story of a significant character in the world (no spoilers!) which was satisfying. A. Bello has created an enjoyable, ethnically diverse fantasy world, which fans of Japanese martial arts-inspired cartoons such as Pokemon, and of X-Men or Runaways should enjoy- the powers both bind Emily to her follow warriors in training and also separate her from the everyday life of her foster family. It’s wonderful to read about people of colour with privilege, living in luxurious gated community Legends Village. Emily is a Black girl; we need more visible diversity in the fantasy world, especially for young people, and especially in this era where the importance of #ownvoices is being recognised. It is also important for young white people to read about characters of colour that are not just in stories about challenging urban lives- though these books are also important. Maybe the third novel in the series will feature a queer character of colour too.

I have one quibble, however- this book needed another copy edit to catch errors in of/off and in misplaced commas in the final third of the book. Hopefully this will be done before the second edition!


When you find the perfect image…

I’ve been very busy recently with PhD writing and marking from my day-job. This summer I have another PhD chapter to write and in August I have the honour of presenting at the IBBY international congress in Athens! I have to record an oral presentation on a PowerPoint by Thursday, so I have been creating the PowerPoint presentation. As a person with a learning disability (dyspraxia) I find it easier to make sense of oral presentations if there are images to help me process what is being said, so I work hard on my own presentations.

My paper for IBBY is entitled “Dangerously attractive foreign witches in children’s fantasy fiction: Harry Potter and His Dark Materials”. I was searching for images of exoticised women, and I found these:

spanish dancer french womanBoth are dark-haired women, both with their heads turned away from the viewer, showing their long necks, both wearing white open-necked blouses and black bodices. The shape of the Spanish dancer’s legs are visible through her skirt, and her feet and one shoulder are bare. Not much has changed in the British view of the exotic, sexual Other in mainland Europe.


Black dogs in children’s fantasy

IMG_6131 (Edited)

At the moment I am writing a chapter of my PhD thesis on working class children in British fantasy fiction from 1965 to 1991. The fantasy fiction of the 1960s and 70s was rooted in the mythology of the British Isles, as Catherine Butler’s Four British Fantasists and Dimitra Fimi’s Celtic Myths in Contemporary Children’s Fantasy. However, I have noticed a repeated figure from British folklore in children’s fantasy literature: the Black Dog, also known as the Gytrash, Barghest, Black Shuck, Grim or Skriker. The Black Dog often foretells death or disaster, as 19th Century literary examples demonstrate: in Jane Eyre Jane mistakes Rochester’s dog Pilot for the Gytrash. Of course, Jane meeting Rochester does bring about death and disaster. Dracula adopts the shape of a huge black dog when he lands at Whitby.

The Giant under the Snow (1968)


Jonk, the splendidly sullen teenage protagonist of The Giant Under the Snow, is attacked then stalked by a menacing black dog during and after a school trip to an ancient burial site. The black dog is accompanied by a stone faced man, who, the children learn, is an ancient warlord wanting to reclaim a golden belt buckle, so he can regain his power.

This book was recommended as a follow up after the Twitter re-read of Susan Cooper’s The Dark is Rising. If I had read it as a child I think I’d have enjoyed it more than I did as an adult; while parts of the book were tense and atmospheric, once Jonk and her friends gained the ability to fly from the wise woman Elizabeth Goodenough (a welcome woman mentor figure in a genre populated with many old bearded men) much of the peril is diminished. Black paw print score: 3.

The Whitby Witches (1991)


Ben, 8 and Jennet, 12 were orphaned by a car crash, sent to live with unsympathetic relatives, then they are put into the care system. Ben has second sight; he sees the ghosts of his parents, but also other ghosts, and this has caused trouble for the children, until they move to Whitby to live with elderly Miss Alice Boston, a distant connection of their mother’s, who also has second sight and respects both children- not only “special” Ben, but also tough, determined and empathic Jennet.

Miss Boston tells the children the stories and legends of Whitby- Dracula landing at Whitby as a Barghest, legends of St Hilda and Caedmon, and the Hand of Glory, which can still be seen in Whitby Museum. All of these stories and legends are woven into the narrative, a fight between good and evil, and Jennet is attacked by an enormous black hound with glowing red eyes, which appears to be controlled by the witch Rowena Cooper. Thankfully the distruction that this Barghest is foretelling is not carried through, though it does predict a death. Black paw print score: 5

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (1999)


Image: Chilliravenantart via Deviantart

The third book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (1999) introduces a vital character: Sirius Black. As Beatrice Groves points out in Literary Allusion in Harry Potter, J. K. Rowling is very deliberate when choosing names for characters. Sirius Black’s name gives us a clue to his nature: Sirius is the Dog Star, and he is an animagus- a wizard who can shape shift. Harry’s first introduction to Sirius is when he is in the shape of a huge black dog, which leads to Harry accidentally summoning the Knight Bus and travelling to Diagon Alley. During Harry’s first Divination lesson, Professor Trelawney reads his tea leaves, and sees a Grim- a black dog that foretells death. This is the first in a long sequence of the Professor predicting Harry’s death; her divination is very Harry-specific. Harry sees the Grim alongside Dementors during Quidditch, leading him to faint and fall from his broom.

Harry is given the Marauders’ Map by Fred and George Weasley, and this is the first time he encounters the names Mooney, Wormtail, Padfoot and Prongs; Padfoot is a name for the ghostly Black Dog of West Yorkshire. Ironically Prisoner of Azkaban the book in the series with the lowest bodycount; thanks to Hermione’s Time Turner, both Buckbeak the hippogriff and Sirius Black are saved, but the arrival of Sirius Black does foretell the darker tone of the next four books, and the return of Lord Voldemort. Black paw print score: 4.

What are your favourite ghostly black dogs in literature?


Neville Longbottom’s origin story

Over Easter weekend it was the 68th British Science Fiction Convention (Eastercon- this year called Follycon) which this year was held at Harrogate. I’ll be writing a couple of posts about it. Firstly, I did a very silly 3 minute presentation at Rapidfire Infoshots. I laughed so much writing this, but unfortunately choked presenting it.Neville 1

Neville 2

  1. So, what do we know about Neville? He was a pureblood, so both his parents were magical. He was born in the summer, and could have been the Chosen One instead of Harry Potter (and some argue that he probably was, but Harry was too self absorbed to notice).

Nevile 3

2. But nothing about his mother’s family. Is her name really Alice?

Neville 4

Neville 5

3. Well, could it? Let’s examine the evidence:

Neville 6

4. I mean, who would keep the name Mildred?

neville 8

Well, what do you think?

What to read after #theDarkisReading

I’ve been following the wonderful #thedarkisreading  hashtag Twitter with delight. There is amazing fan-art, as well as readers old and new, has been a midwinter treat. This question from Robert McFarlane, who first proposed the re-read, got me thinking.


I was given Dr Dimitra Fimi’s Celtic Myth in Contemporary Children’s Fantasy for Christmas from my wonderful and supportive parents (academic books aren’t cheap, you know!) and coincidentally have been researching and drafting a chapter for my PhD thesis- a timeline of British children’s fantasy fiction from Alan Garner’s Elidor to Robin Jarvis’s The Whitby Witches- so I have been thinking about developments in children’s fantasy fiction over 50 years. Elidor features a mix of Welsh and Irish myth; The Whitby Witches is strongly rooted in Whitby and contains a mixture of legends of Whitby, such as St Hilda, the Hand of Glory   from the Whitby Museum and the Barghest.

It is not surprising that both Garner and Cooper write mythopoeic fantasy, since they (as well as Diana Wynne Jones and Penelope Lively) studied at Oxford during the era of C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkein, as C. Butler’s Four British Fantasists (2006) discusses. Michael Levy and Farah Mendlesohn‘s 2016 Children’s Fantasy Literature: An Introduction posits the positioning of Britain as a melting pot, a mongrel nation, by the British left of the 1970s. In the face of National Front marches, Robert Leeson’s A Third Class Genie was explicitly positioning racist and classist attitudes as both wrong and against the spirit of Britain that won the war, although it uses the myths of the Arabian Nights rather than British or Celtic myth.

I recommended three books in response to Robert McFarlane’s tweet. One I have already written about: Recent reading: James Clammer and Louise O’ Neill. The other two are Peader O’ Guilin‘s The Call and Alex Wheatle‘s Crongton Knights. 

The Call

The Call is not, like the books above, written about Britain. The book is set in the North West of Ireland, a dystopia where the Sidhe, terrifying fairy folk, have risen to take back Ireland from humans. They are stealing teenagers and taking them back to the fairy realm. Most do not return, and those that do are altered, either mentally, physically or both. Because of this education is focused in boarding schools, on training students to survive the call for three minutes. The use of Irish mythology is unsettling; it disconnects the students from the land, rather than reinforcing their place in it. The body horror is vivid and, well, horrible. The sequel is published in March and I’ll be waving my money at a bookseller soon after.

crongton knights

Crongton Knights is also set in a dangerous, alienating landscape: that of the fictional London borough of Crongton. This is the second in a trilogy, but I first read it as a stand-alone book and it’s easy to pick up the narrative and the characters from the first book, Liccle Bit. McKay, Jonah and Liccle Bit are 14 year olds, living on an estate in South Crongton. They go on a perilous quest on the bus to North Crongton, to retrieve the phone of the beautiful Venetia, stolen by her ex-boyfriend, Sergio, who took naked photos of her, that her strict Christian family cannot find out about. A simple enough task, apart from the ongoing feud between North and South Crongton youth, and the gangster Manjaro, who has a score to settle.

McKay is an engaging character; a boy who has been teased for his weight, and who takes joy in becoming the cook in his family following the murder of his mother. Touchingly, as well as appreciating how attractive Venetia’s Turkish friend Saira is, he also picks up the scent of lamb kofta at her house; a delightful detail. The story is told in McKay’s voice; he loves both Star Wars and Tolkien, and uses imagery of chivalric Arthurian quests along with Black London slang to create a new language that is distinct and metaphorical: castles for tower blocks; drawbridges for doorways; McKay goes to his dungeon rather than his bedroom. The book even has a map at the front of it. It’s a beautiful book, well worthy of its Guardian award for children’s literature.