This paper discusses approaches to pedagogy outlined in three series of books for children and young adults. By the end of the presentation, I hope to have outlined what the education systems in these novels says about the culture and society presented in these books. The books are: JK Rowling’s Harry Potter series, Jonathan Stroud’s Bartimaeus trilogy and Terry Pratchett’s Tiffany Aching series.
First, a brief summary of constructivist pedagogy. Piaget was the preeminent scholar of constructivism- children go through stages of learning and construct their meaning from interaction with the environment. Social constructivism- children learn best and construct meaning through interaction with the environment alongside a more experienced learner or teacher.
Social learning theory/ Social cognition theory
Humans are self-organising, self-regulating and self- reflecting, and learning should be social, modelled by an adult to develop these innate qualities.
The pedagogy of Hogwarts
Behaviourism (Skinner) is the basis of many rewards-based behaviour management systems. Whyte and Lauriston (1980) argued that students intrinsically motivated (i.e. good behaviour is its own reward) tend to be more academically successful- for example, Hermione; Lavender Brown in Divination; Neville Longbottom in Herbology.
Rebus asks questions. He wants to assess prior knowledge but also to allow student voice (Bruner). He encourages oral rehearsal before practice. He uses praise to engage and encourage. He models what he expects from the students (Bandura). Practical activity with real life application, supported by teacher (Vygotsky). Assessment at the end of the lesson and feedback. Unfortunately, despite Lupin’s success as a Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, anti-werewolf feeling leads to him leaving Hogwarts. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doxxfXqpKYA
Young magicians are chosen by more experienced magicians at a young age, and are supposed to be taught and inducted into the magician life. Magicians control society in this alternate version of our world; they are government, judicial system and policing. Nathanial has tutors, and has very little interaction with his master (Arthur Underwood), who is supposed to induct him into the wizard world.
Arthur has no idea about Nathanial’s abilities; he constantly underestimates him, provides no challenge and never assesses him. He makes little attempt to get to know Nathanial and doesn’t have a holistic attitude to teaching the whole child. As a result, Nathanial becomes bored and overreaches himself.
On the Discworld, wizards attend Unseen University where they squabble about arcane theory and academic preference, wear silly outfits and are involved with outmoded pageantry.
Witches, on the other hand, are fully involved with the community, although their status does set them apart a little. Witches are spotted by Miss Tick the Witch finder, who then arranges for the witch to become an apprentice to an older, more experienced witch. Tiffany adopts, then adapts, the practice of her mentors, eventually taking her own apprentice; Geoffrey. This education is fully grounded in a social constructivist model and has a sound moral basis- “witches speak for those who cannot speak for themselves”.
What does this tell us about the fictional worlds?
Hogwarts separates young Muggles (non wizards) from wizards, and then sorts them again into houses at the age of 11, labelling them as brave, hard working, intelligent or cunning. The “us versus them”, competitive atmosphere that this creates at Hogwarts from Harry’s first day at Hogwarts ultimately leads to the rise of the Death Eaters, the repressive Ministry of Magic under Rufus Scrimgeour and Dolores Umbridge.
In the Bartimaeus trilogy, the early separation of magicians and commoners, as well as a very jingoistic education system (seen in the second in the trilogy, The Golem’s Eye) creates resentment and ultimately revolution in the commoners and fear and suspicion in the magicians.
Pratchett tells us that “witches do the work that is in front of them”. Their education is community based, practical and ethically based. Tiffany is educated morally, spiritually and practically; by the final book she recognises the changes in Discworld with the coming of the railways.
Despite both Hermione and Tiffany’s enjoyment of reading and love of learning being shown as positives that save them in dangerous situations, all the series view education as an economic function, training young wizards and witches to fulfil their working roles in society. Through this, Rowling, Stroud and Pratchett comment on, critique and satirise contemporary society.